Doss, GA; Mans, C; Houseright, RA; Webb, JL: Urinalysis in Chinchillas (Chinchilla Lanigera) - In: J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2016 Apr 15;248(8):901-7 - Link
Objective: To evaluate urine variables in chinchillas (Chinchilla lanigera).
Design: Evaluation study.
Sample: Urine samples from 41 chinchillas.
Procedures: Voided urine samples were collected from clinically normal chinchillas that were exhibited during a breeder exposition. Urinalysis was performed within 1 hour after collection. Urine specific gravity (USG) was measured before and after centrifugation with a handheld veterinary refractometer. Urine dipstick analysis and microscopic sedimentation examination were performed on all samples. Additionally, a urine sulfosalicylic acid (SSA) precipitation test and quantitative protein analysis were performed on samples with sufficient volume.
Results: 17 of 41 (41%) samples had a USG ≥ 1.050, and USG ranged from 1.014 to > 1.060. The USG before centrifugation did not differ significantly from that after centrifugation. Protein was detected in all urine samples on dipstick analysis. The SSA precipitation test yielded negative results for all samples tested. Results of the quantitative protein analyses were not correlated with the results of the dipstick analyses or SSA tests. The recorded pH for all samples was 8.5, which was the upper limit of detection for the reagent strip. Glucose and ketones were detected in 5 and 6 samples, respectively. Crystals were observed in 28 of 41 (68%) samples; 27 of those samples contained amorphous crystals.
Conclusions and clinical relevance: Urinalysis results for clinically normal chinchillas were provided. For chinchilla urine samples, measurement of USG by refractometry prior to centrifugation is acceptable and protein concentration should be determined by quantitative protein analysis rather than dipstick analysis or the SSA test.
Rabbits, guinea pigs, and chinchillas are all classified as hindgut fermenters, depending on primarily cecal microflora for nutrient composition. The rabbit has some unique anatomical features including the sacculus rotundus and the vermiform appendix. Gastrointestinal disorders in these animals can be a challenge to clinicians as not only the motility of the hindgut must be maintained, but the microflora as well. Dysbiosis, or changes in the microflora can release toxins and further alter the pH, microflora and motility. The clinician must also be aware of gastrointestinal pain and hydration status accompanying most gastrointestinal disease.
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effects of restraint time and thermometer insertion depth on rectal temperature measurements in chinchillas and determine the extent of agreement between temperatures measured with 2 tympanic and a rectal thermometer. DESIGN Prospective method comparison study. ANIMALS 47 healthy chinchillas. PROCEDURES Effects of 1- and 2-cm rectal thermometer insertion depths and the effect of manual restraint for up to 5 minutes were evaluated. Near simultaneous temperature measurements were obtained with a human tympanic, a veterinary tympanic, and a rectal thermometer by 2 observers. Duplicate temperature measurements were obtained for each method, and the sequence of measurements was randomized for each animal. RESULTS Rectal temperature readings obtained at a depth of 2 cm were significantly higher (mean ± SD, 1.14 ± 0.77°C [2.05° ± 1.39°F]) than those obtained at 1 cm. After 3 minutes, manual restraint had a significant effect on rectal temperature. The reference interval for rectal temperature in chinchillas with a 2-cm thermometer insertion depth was calculated as 34.9° to 37.9°C (94.8° to 100.2°F). Both tympanic infrared thermometers had significant systematic bias (0.42 ± 0.12°C [0.76° ± 0.22°F]) and proportional bias (0.88 ± 0.14°C [1.58° ± 0.25°F]). The coefficients of reliability for the rectal thermometer, the human tympanic thermometer, and the veterinary tympanic thermometer were 0.86, 0.85, and 0.69, respectively. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Rectal thermometer insertion depth and duration of manual restraint had a significant effect on rectal temperature measurements in chinchillas. Because of significant systematic and proportional bias, tympanic thermometry was not considered a suitable replacement for rectal thermometry in chinchillas.
The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between the types of chinchilla behaviour and different images of band patterns obtained using the RAPD-PCR technique. The sound-move test allowed classification of the animals into confident, reserved and indifferent ones. The results of the pilot study based on markers OPA07 and OPA12 suggest the existence of DNA regions containing nucleotide sequences that determine chinchilla behaviour. It is advisable that further analyses should be performed aimed at discovering sequences of genetic material that may determine the traits studied. This will facilitate using the band pattern as an additional criterion, beside lineage information, in animal selection