Fremdsprachige Dissertationen, Artikel und Studien

Ernährung

  • Cortés A et al (2002): Seasonal food habits of the endangered long-tailed chinchilla (Chinchilla lanigera): the effect of precipitation. In: Mammalian Biology - Zeitschrift fur Saugetierkunde 67(3):167-175 - Link
  • De Roode, JC et al: Ecology. Self-Medication in Animals - In: Science 12 April 2013: Vol. 340 no. 6129 pp. 150-151 - Link
  • Glogowski, R et al: The effect of dietary fat source on feed digestibility in chinchillas (Chinchilla lanigera) - In: Animal Science No 52 (2013): 23–28 - Link
  • Grant, K (2010): Adaptations in Herbivore Nutrition - Link
  • Grant, K: Rodent nutrition: Digestive comparisons of 4 common rodent species. In: Vet Clin North Exot Anim Pract. 2014 Sep;17(3):471-83 - Link
  • Hagen, K B et al: Drinking preferences in chinchillas (Chinchilla laniger), degus (Octodon degu) and guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) - In: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition 2014 Oct;98(5):942-7 - Link

Summary
Chinchilla (Chinchilla laniger), degus (Octodon degus) and guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) are South American rodents living in a semi-arid habitat with varying, species-specific adaptations to water deprivation. Nonetheless, several diseases have been linked to insufficient water intake when these species are kept as pets, such as urolithiasis or obstipation. This study evaluated preferences for drinking systems. Six animals of each species were given a choice between an open dish and a nipple drinker. Food intake and water intake were measured daily for 13 days. Chinchillas in this study had significantly lower water intakes than the other two species, indicating particular species-specific adaptations to aridity. All chinchillas favoured open dishes, whereas the degus and guinea pigs had variable individual preferences. Water intake of chinchillas was similar or higher in this study than in previous studies where nipple drinkers were used. The results indicate that degus and guinea pigs can meet their drinking water needs with nipple drinkers; for chinchillas, other drinking systems may be more adequate.

  • Hagen H B et al: Retention of solute and particle markers in the digestive tract of chinchillas (Chinchilla laniger). In: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition 2016 Oct;100(5):801-6 - Link
  • Hirakawa, H (2001): Coprophagy in leporids and other mammalian herbivores - In: Mammal Review 31: 61-80
  • Hirakawa, H (2002): Supplement: Coprophagy in leporids and other mammalian herbivores - In: Mammal Review 32: 150-152
  • Holtenius, K et al: The colonic separation mechanism in the guinea-pig (Cavia porcellus) and the chinchilla (Chinchilla laniger). In: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. A, Comparative Physiology 82(3): 537-542, 1985 - Link
  • King, KW et al (1952): Nutritional Studies of the Chinchilla, with Special Reference to Ascorbic Acid and Thiamine - Link
  • Larrivee, GP et al (1954): Studies on the Nutritional Requirements of Chinchillas: Four Figures - Link
  • Scottsdale Veterinary Clinic: Chinchilla Nutrition - Link
Greens are a must. A variety of greens with the unlimited hay prevents boredom and provides essential nutrients. Greens should be introduced into the diet slowly, so as to not irritate the chinchilla’s gastrointestinal tract. If a chinchilla hasn’t had a certain green before, give it only a couple of strands the first few days. After that, you can increase the amount daily. Below is a list of greens that are good for chinchillas.
  • Serra, M.T.: Composición botánica y variación estacional de la alimentación de Chinchilla linigera en condiciones naturales. In: Ciencias Forestales 1(4): 11-18 (1979) - Link, Degupedia, Studienergebnisse
  • Szeleszczuk, O et al: Effect of storage conditions of chinchilla pellets on their microbiological quality. In: Roczniki Naukowe Zootechniki 2000 No. Supplement z.6 pp. 303-308 - Link
  • The Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies: Advising agsinst Muesli-style diet for pet rabbits - Link1 (PDF), Link2, Link3
    FOR PET RABBITS
  • Wojtacka, J et al: Sodium carbonate intoxication on a chinchilla (Chinchilla lanigera) farm: a case report. In: Veterinarni Medicina 59(2): 112-116, 2014 - Link
  • Wolf, P et al (2003): The nutrition of the chinchilla as a companion animal - Basic data, influences and dependences - In: J Anim Physiol a Anim Nutr 87(3-4):129-33 - Link

Gesundheit

  • Alper CM; Doyle WJ et al: Efficacy of clarithromycin treatment of acute otitis media caused by infection with penicillin-susceptible, -intermediate, and -resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae in the chinchilla - In: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 40(8):1889-92, 1996 - Link
  • Arriaganda, G et al (2014): Parvovirus-derived endogenous viral elements in two South american rodent genomes - In: J Virol. 2014 Oct 15;88(20):12158-62 - Link
  • Aul, JJ et al: Comparative evaluation of culture and PCR for the detection and determination of persistence bacterial strains and DNAs in the Chinchilla laniger model of otitis media. In: Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 1998 Jun;107(6):508-13 - Link
  • Baranowski, P et al: Biometry of the Skull of Wild and Farm Long-tailed Chinchilla. In: Int. J. Morphol. vol.31 no.3 Temuco set. 2013 - Link
  • Baranowski, P et al: Effect Of Hypertropic Defect On The Occurence Of Foraminal, Shape, And Cribrosity Features In The Cranium And Mandible Of Wild And Farm Chinchillas (Chinchilla laniger). In: Bull Vet Inst Pulawy 55, 247-260, 2011 - Link
  • Barbosa, LR et al.: Conjuntivite bacteriana secundária à doença dentária em chinchilas. In: Cienc. Rural vol.42 no.11 Santa Maria Nov. 2012 - Link
  • Basso W et al: Generalized Taenia crassiceps cysticercosis in a chinchilla (Chinchilla lanigera). In: Vet Parasitol. 2014 Jan 17;199(1-2):116-20 - Link
  • Bays, TB: Geriatric Care of Rabbits, Guinea Pigs, and Chinchillas. In: Vet Clin North Exot Anim Pract 2020 Sep;23(3): 567-593 - Link
  • Berg, CC et al: Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus infection in a pet chinchilla (Chinchilla lanigera). In: Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine 31: 36-38, 2019 - Link
  • Böhmer, et al (2009): Objective interpretation of dental disease in rabbits, guinea pigs and chinchillas. Use of anatomical reference lines - Link (PDF)
  • Böhmer, C et al (2017): Shape Variation in the Craniomandibular System and Prevalence of Dental Problems in Domestic Rabbits: A Case Study in Evolutionary Veterinary Science - In: Vet Sci. 2017 Mar; 4(1): 5 - Link
  • Björnhag, G: Separation and retrograde transport in the large intestine of herbivores. In: Livestock Production Science, Volume 8, Issue 4, August 1981, Pages 351–360 - Link
  • Calamar, CD et al: Morpho-histological study of the digestive tract and the annex glands of CHINCHILLA LANIGER - In:
    In: SCIENTIFIC PAPERS ANIMAL SCIENCE AND BIOTECHNOLOGIES, Vol 47, No 1 (2014) - Link
  • Crossley, DA: Clinical aspects of rodent dental anatomy - In: J Vet Dent, 12(4):131-135, 1995 - Link
  • Crossley, DA: Dental Disease In Rabbits And Herbivorous Rodents(*)
  • Crossley, DA: Haematology and serum biochemistry in chinchillas.

SUMMARY
Blood testing is routinely used for health assessment in species for which normal ranges are known. Insufficient data is available for many exotic species including chinchillas. Chinchillas are susceptible to a wide range of disorders so blood testing is expected to be a useful clinical tool for this species. Although basic haematology parameters have been published, little work appears to have been done on serum chemistry. Blood samples were collected from clinically healthy and diseased chinchillas, and submitted to a commercial veterinary laboratory. Haematology and serum chemistry analyses were performed in order to furnish reference ranges and to assess whether such tests were of value in the early diagnosis of dental disease in chinchillas. Some parameters showed wide variations between animals. Variation was not found to be related to age, sex, a history of fur chewing or the presence of early dental lesions. High serum creatinine kinase levels occurred in animals which struggled during capture with other parameters varying most in animals with advanced diseased.

  • Doss, GA; Mans, C; Houseright, RA; Webb, JL:  Urinalysis in Chinchillas (Chinchilla Lanigera) - In: J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2016 Apr 15;248(8):901-7 - Link

Abstract:

Objective: To evaluate urine variables in chinchillas (Chinchilla lanigera).

Design: Evaluation study.

Sample: Urine samples from 41 chinchillas.

Procedures: Voided urine samples were collected from clinically normal chinchillas that were exhibited during a breeder exposition. Urinalysis was performed within 1 hour after collection. Urine specific gravity (USG) was measured before and after centrifugation with a handheld veterinary refractometer. Urine dipstick analysis and microscopic sedimentation examination were performed on all samples. Additionally, a urine sulfosalicylic acid (SSA) precipitation test and quantitative protein analysis were performed on samples with sufficient volume.

Results: 17 of 41 (41%) samples had a USG ≥ 1.050, and USG ranged from 1.014 to > 1.060. The USG before centrifugation did not differ significantly from that after centrifugation. Protein was detected in all urine samples on dipstick analysis. The SSA precipitation test yielded negative results for all samples tested. Results of the quantitative protein analyses were not correlated with the results of the dipstick analyses or SSA tests. The recorded pH for all samples was 8.5, which was the upper limit of detection for the reagent strip. Glucose and ketones were detected in 5 and 6 samples, respectively. Crystals were observed in 28 of 41 (68%) samples; 27 of those samples contained amorphous crystals.

Conclusions and clinical relevance: Urinalysis results for clinically normal chinchillas were provided. For chinchilla urine samples, measurement of USG by refractometry prior to centrifugation is acceptable and protein concentration should be determined by quantitative protein analysis rather than dipstick analysis or the SSA test.

  • Crossley, DA (2010): Dental Disease In Rabbits And  Rodents - Link
  • De Oliveira Silva, T et al: Valores de referência para os parâmetros das células e bioquímica sangüínea da chinchila (Chinchilla laniger). In: Cienc. Rural vol.35 no.3 Santa Maria May/June 2005 - Link
  • De Roode, JC: Self-Medication in Animals. In: Science 12 April 2013: Vol. 340 no. 6129 pp. 150-151 - Link
  • DeCubelis J: Common Emergencies in Rabbits, Guinea Pigs, and Chinchillas. In: Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract. 2016 May;19(2):411-29 - Link
  • Derbaudrenghien, V (2010): Dental pathology in chinchillas - In: Vlams Diergeneeskundig Tijdschrift 79(5):345-358 - Link
  • Diaz, GB et al: Renal morphology, phylogenetic history and desert adaptation of South American hystricognath rodents - In: Functional Ecology 2006 20, 609–620 - Link
  • Doerning BJ et al.: Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in a Chinchilla lanigera. In: Lab Anim 1993, 27:131-133 - Link
  • Donnelly, TM (2006): Disease Problems of Chinchillas - In: Ferrets, rabbits, and rodents: clinical medicine and surgery (pp.255-265) - Link
  • Ferreira de Castro, T et al (2010): Aspectos morfológicos, morfométricos e topográficos do aparelho digestório de Chinchilla lanigera - In: Braz J Vet Res Anim Sci 2010; 47: 86-94 - Link
  • Finley, GG et al: An epizootic of listeriosis in chinchillas. In: Can Vet J. Jun 1977; 18(6): 164–167 - Link
  • Fox, L: Comparison of Dexmedetomidine-Ketamine with Isoflurane for Anesthesia of Chinchillas (Chinchilla lanigera). In: J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci. 2016;55(3):312-6 - Link
  • González Pereyra, Mía.L et al: An outbreak of acute aflatoxicosis on a chinchilla (Chinchilla lanigera) farm in Argentina. In: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation 20(6): 853-856, 2008 - Link
  • Gornatti Churria, CD et al (2014): Diagnosis of an outbreak of Salmonella Typhimurium in chinchillas (Chinchilla lanigera) by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis - In: Rev. Argent. Microbiol. Jul-Sep 2014;46(3):205-9 - Link
  • Grant, K (2014): Rodent nutrition: digestive comparisons of 4 common rodent species - Link
  • Gromadzka-Ostrowska J et al: (1985): Seasonal fluctuations in plasma protein fraction levels of chinchillas (Chinchilla laniger) - In: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, Part A: Physiology, 1985,80 (2), 215-224 - Link
    In: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, Part A: Physiology, 1985,80 (2), 215-224
  • Hargett, CE et al: Comparison of Three Anesthetics for Chinchilla. In: Army Aeromedical Research Lab., Fort Rucker, AL ; 1988 - Link
  • Hartmann, K (1993): Husbandry-related diseases in the chinchilla - Link

  • Hermiö, H (2019): Dental problems in rabbits, guinea pigs and chinchillas - Link
  • Hirakawa, H (2001): Coprophagy in leporids and other mammalian herbivores. In: Mammal Review, Volume 31, Issue 1, pages 61–80 - Link
  • Hittmair KM, Tichy A, Nell B.: Ultrasonography of the Harderian gland in the rabbit, guinea pig, and chinchilla. In: Vet Ophthalmol. 2014 May;17(3):175-83 - Link
  • Huynh M et al: Disseminated Mycobacterium genavense Infection in a Chinchilla (Chinchilla lanigera). In: Journal of comparative pathology : 2014 Mar 14 pg - Link
  • Irimescu, I et al (2014): Anatomical Study of the Cerebral Hemispheres in the Chinchilla (Chinchilla lanigera) - In: Bulletin UASVM Veterinary Medicine 71 (1), 130-136 - Link. Hier noch viele andere Studien zur Chinchill-Anatomie der Dame: https://scholar.google.com/citations?user=8DcSgywAAAAJ&hl=en
  • Jenkins, JR (2010): Diseases of geriatric Guinea pigs and chinchillas. In: Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract. 2010 Jan;13(1):85-93 - Link

  • Johnson-Delaney, CA: Anatomy and Physiology of the Rabbit and Rodent Gastrointestinal System, 2006

Abstract:

Rabbits, guinea pigs, and chinchillas are all classified as hindgut fermenters, depending on primarily cecal microflora for nutrient composition. The rabbit has some unique anatomical features including the sacculus rotundus and the vermiform appendix. Gastrointestinal disorders in these animals can be a challenge to clinicians as not only the motility of the hindgut must be maintained, but the microflora as well. Dysbiosis, or changes in the microflora can release toxins and further alter the pH, microflora and motility. The clinician must also be aware of gastrointestinal pain and hydration status accompanying most gastrointestinal disease.

  • Kania-Gierdziewicz, J (2021): The analysis of chinchilla (Chinchilla lanigera, M.) male reproduction. The case of a leading polish breeding farm - Link
  • Kitts, WD et al: Cellular blood constituents and serum protein fractions of the chinchilla (Chinchilla lanigera). In: Canadian Journal of Zoology 49(8): 1079-1084, 1971 - Link
  • Kulzer, E et al: Early development and temperature regulation in the chinchilla (Chinchilla laniger Molina, 1782). In: Zeitschrift fur Saugetierkunde 39(4): 231-243,1974 - Link
  • Kulzer, E: Jugendentwicklung und Temperaturregulation bein chinchilla (chinchilla laniger Molina, 1782). In: Zeitschrift Saugetierk 394: 231-243, 1974 - Link
  • Legendre, LFJ: Malocclusions in guinea pigs, chinchillas and rabbits - In: Can Vet J. 2002 May; 43(5): 385–390 - Link
  • Lightfoot TL: Clinical examination of chinchillas, hedgehogs, prairie dogs, and sugar gliders. In: Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract. 1999 May;2(2):447-69, vii - Link
  • Lightfoot, TL:  Clinical techniques of selected exotic species: Chinchilla, prairie dog, hedgehog, and chelonians - In: Seminars in Avian and Exotic Pet Medicine Volume 6, Issue 2, April 1997, Pages 96-105 - Link
  • Linde, A et al: Echocardiography in the chinchilla - In: J Vet Intern Med Sep-Oct 2004;18(5):772-4 - Link
  • Lucena, RB et al.: Diseases of chinchilla (Chinchilla lanigera) - In: Pesq. Vet. Bras., 2012, vol.32, n.6, pp. 529-535 - Link (PDF)
  • Lucena RB et al: Necrotizing enteritis associated with Clostridium perfringensType B in chinchillas (Chinchilla lanigera). In: Pesq. Vet. Bras. vol.31 no.12 Rio de Janeiro Dec. 2011 - Link
  • Lucena RB et al: Outbreaks of salinomycin toxicosis in Chinchillas (Chinchilla lanigera). In: Pesq. Vet. Bras. vol.32 no.1 Rio de Janeiro Jan. 2012 - Link
  • Łapiński, S et al: Analysis of factors increasing the probability of fur chewing in chinchilla (Chinchilla lanigera) raised under farm conditions - In: Annals of Animal Science. Band 14, Heft 1, Seiten 189–195 - Link
  • Martel, A et al (2020): Update on Diseases in Chinchillas: 2013-2019- In: Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract 2020 May;23(2):321-335 - Link
  • Martinez, M et al: Morphological Study Of The Larynx Of Chinchilla. In: Rev. chil. anat. v.17 n.1 Temuco 1999 - Link
  • Martinez-Pereira MA et al (2014): Experimental model of tympanic colic (acute abdomen) in chinchillas (Chinchilla lanigera) - In: Lab Anim Res. 2014 Sep;30(3):136-41 - Link
  • Mathieu B et al: Estudio de la flora bacteriana normal de Chinchilla lanigera Silvestre - In: Revista Latinoamericana de Microbiologia, 242: 77-82 - Link
  • Meyer, EA et al: Culture in vitro of Giardia Trophozoites from the Rabbit and Chinchilla - In: Nature volume 207, pages1417–1418(1965) - Link
  • Moore RW et al: Enterotoxaemia in chinchillas - In: Lab Anim 9:153-154,1975 - Link
  • Nowak, E et al: Extrahepatic Biliary Tract in Chinchilla (Chinchilla laniger, Molina) - In: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia, 4 AUG 2014 - Link
  • Nowak E: Organisation of autonomic nervous structures in the large intestine of chinchilla (Chinchilla laniger Molina). In: Folia biologica 61:3-4 2013 pg 135-41 - Link
  • Nowak E: Organization of the innervation of the oesophagus and stomach in chinchilla (Chinchilla laniger, Molina). In: Folia histochemica et cytobiologica / Polish Academy of Sciences, Polish Histochemical and Cytochemical Society 51:2 2013 pg 115-20 - Link
  • Ozawa, S et al: Comparison of rectal and tympanic thermometry in chinchillas (Chinchilla lanigera) - In: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, September 1, 2017, Vol. 251, No. 5 , Pages 552-558 - Link
  • Ozawa, S et al (2017): Epidemiology of bacterial conjunctivitis in chinchillas (Chinchilla lanigera): 49 cases (2005 to 2015) - In: J Small Anim Pract. 2017 Apr;58(4):238-245 - Link
  • Peifer, RL et al (1980): Clinical ocular findings in a colony of chinchillas (Chinchilla laniger) - Link
  • Pignon, C et al (2012): Evaluation of heart murmurs in chinchillas ( Chinchilla lanigera ): 59 cases (1996–2009) - In: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 241(10):1344-7 - Link
  • Reavill, D R (2014): Pathology of the Exotic Companion Mammal Gastrointestinal System - In: Veterinary Clinics of North America Exotic Animal Practice 17(2):145-164 - Link
  • Reavill, DR et al: Disease Overview of the Urinary Tract in Exotic Companion Mammals and Tips on Clinical Management - In: Vet Clin North Exot Anim Pract. 2020 Jan;23(1):169-193 - Link
  • Rosenfeld, RM; Doyle, WJ et al: Efficacy of Ceftibuten for Acute Otitis Media Caused by Hemophilus Influenzae: an Animal Study - In: Annals of Otology, Rhinology & Laryngology, Vol 102, Issue 3, 1993 - Link
  • Sabocanec, R et al: Incidence of listeriosis in farm chinchillas (Chinchilla laniger) in Croatia. In: Veterinary Archiv, 70 (2000), 3; 159-167 - Link
  • Sakaguchi, E (2003): Digestive strategies of small hindgut fermenters. in: Animal Science Journal, Volume 74, Issue 5, pages 327–337 - Link
  • Sakar, D et al: Safety of peroral sulfadimidine sodium treatment in chinchillas (Chinchilla lanigera). In: VETERINARSKI ARHIV 75 (4), 283-291, 2005 - Link
  • Pantchev N et al: Occurrence and molecular typing of Giardia isolates in pet rabbits, chinchillas, guinea pigs and ferrets collected in Europe during 2006–2012. In: Veterinary Record vetrec-2013-102236Published Online First: 2 April 2014 - Link
  • Tappa, B et al: A simple method for intravenous injection and blood collection in the chinchilla (Chinchilla laniger). In: Laboratory Animals 23(1): 73-75,
  • Turowski EE et al: Isolation of a Campylobacter lanienae-like Bacterium from Laboratory Chinchillas (Chinchilla laniger). In: Zoonoses Public Health. 2014 Mar 13 - Link
  • Wagner, F et al: Eye diseases of Chinchilla (Chinchilla lanigera): Anatomical and physiological characteristics and disorders. In: Kleintierpraxis 53(5):309-318, 2008 - Link
  • Wohlsein, P et al: Spontaneous human herpes virus type 1 infection in a chinchilla (Chinchilla lanigera f. dom.). In: Acta Neuropathologica 104(6): 674-678, 2002 - Link

Verhalten, Soziales, Zucht und Sonstiges

  • Alvarez, M et al: Crecimieto Corporal De Chinchilla (Chinchilla lanigera) En Un Criadero Comercial De La Provincia De Buenos Aires (Argentinia) - Link
  • Barabash, B: The Domestication Of Chinchilla (Chinchilla Laniger). In: VOGiS Bulletin 11(1): 115-121, 2007 - Link & in DP
  • Barabasz, B et al: Estimation the Length of Inter-Oestrus Periods in Chinchilla.
  • Bascir EA et al: Chinchilla (Chinchilla lanigera) behavioral responses to a visual signal preceding handling. In: Zoo Biol. 2020 Nov;39(6):391-396 - Link
  • Becerra F et al: Another one bites the dust: Bite force and ecology in three caviomorph rodents (Rodentia, Hystricognathi). In: Journal of experimental zoology. Part A, Ecological genetics and physiology 321:4 2014 Apr pg 220-32 - Link
  • Brzozowski, M et al: Chinchillas reproduction results in relation to the age of the first mating time. In: Animal Science No 44, 2007: 3–7 - Link
  • Burgess,ME et al (2014): Reproductive Physiology, Normal Neonatology, and Neonatal Disorders of Chinchillas - In: Management of Pregnant and Neonatal Dogs, Cats, and Exotic Pets (pp.295-307) - Link
  • Busso, JM et al: Assessment of urine and fecal testosterone metabolite excretion in Chinchilla lanigera males. In: Anim Reprod Sci. 2005 Apr;86(3-4):339-51 - Link
  • Busso J M et al: Reproduction in chinchilla (Chinchilla lanigera): current status of environmental control of gonadal activity and advances in reproductive techniques. In: Theriogenology. 2012 Jul 1;78(1):1-11 - Link
  • Busso JM et al: Year-round testicular volume and semen quality evaluations in captive Chinchilla lanigera. In: Animal reproduction science 90:1-2 2005 Nov pg 127-34 - Link
  • Corporación Nacional Forestal (Chile): Plan de manejo Reserva Nacional Las Chinchillas - Link
  • Dominchin MF et al: Seasonal evaluations of urinary androgen metabolites and semen quality in domestic long-tailed chinchilla (Chinchilla lanigera) under natural photoperiod. In: Animal reproduction science 145:1-2 2014 Feb pg 99-104 - Link
  • Donnelly, TM et al (2004): Guinea pig and chinchilla care and husbandry - Link
  • Dzierżanowska-Góryń, D et al (2011): The analysis of chinchilla females reproduction (Chinchilla laniger M.), on the example of Polish breeding farm - Link
  • Dzierżanowska-Góryń, D et al (2005): The behaviour and an activity of chinchilla (chinchilla lanigenra) kept under laboratory conditions - Link
  • Eisenberg, JF (1963): A Comparative Study of Sandbathing Behavior in Heteromyid Rodents - In: Behaviour, Vol. 22, No. 1/2 (1963), pp. 16-23 - Link
  • Galeano MG et al (2014): Reproductive performance and weaning success in fur-chewing chinchillas (Chinchilla lanigera) - In: Reprod Biol. 2014 Sep;14(3):213-7 - Link
  • Gromadzka-Ostrowska, J et al: Progesterone Concentration and their Seasonal Changes during the Estrus Cycle of Chinchilla. In: ACTA THERIOLOGICA, Vol. 29, 20: 251—258, 1984 - Link
  • Jimenez, JE (1993): The extirpation and current status of wild chinchillas chinchilla lanigera and c. brevicaudata
    In: Biological Observation 77 (1996) 1-6 - Link
  • Kania-Gierdziewicz, J et al: The analysis of chinchilla (Chinchilla lanigera, M.) male reproduction. The case of a leading polish breeding farm. In: Anim Sci J. 2020 Jan;91(1) - Link
  • Kuroiwa, J et al: Growth and reproduction of the chinchilla-age at vaginal opening, oestrous cycle, gestation period, litter size, sex ratio, and diseases frequently encountered (author's transl). In: Jikken Dobutsu. 1977 Jul;26(3):213-22 - Link
  • Leal, MC; Franç LR: Postnatal Sertoli and Leydig cell proliferation and the establishment of puberty and sexual maturity in Chinchilla lanigera (Rodentia, Chinchillidae) - In: Reproduction, Fertility and Development 20(6) 665-673, 2008 - Link

Abstract:

The Chilean chinchilla (Chinchilla lanigera) is threatened in its natural habitat and there is very little information concerning the reproductive biology of this species. Our main objectives were to investigate the postnatal testis development in this rodent, with emphasis on Sertoli and Leydig cell proliferation and the establishment of puberty and sexual maturity. Forty-four animals from one day to 30 months of age had their testis and epididymis prepared (time of collection for animals from 5 to 30 months of age, May–November in the southern hemisphere) for histological and stereological analyses. Both Sertoli and Leydig cell proliferation occurred up to two months after birth and their total number per testis were stable thereafter. Based on spermatid release from the seminiferous epithelium and the presence of sperm in the epididymis, puberty in chinchilla took place at around three months of age. However, testis weight and tubular diameter and epithelium height appeared to stabilise only after the animals reached 17 months of age, indicating that the establishment of full sexual maturity in this species takes a relatively long period of time. This particular finding indicates that chinchilla might represent an interesting experimental model to investigate the mechanisms that regulate the establishment of this important event of reproductive physiology in mammals.

  • Meijer, JH et al: Wheel running in the wild. In: Proc. R. Soc. B 7 July 2014 vol. 281 no. 1786 -Link
  • Sandalon S, Boykova A, Ross M, Obolensky A, Banin E, Ofri R: Contrary to popular belief, chinchillas do not have a pure rod retina. - In: Veterinary Ophthalmology  2019 Jan - Link
  • Ślaska, B; Nisztuk, S; Rozempolska-Rucinska, I; Zieba, G; Babic, M; Surdyka, M: Identification of DNA sequences affecting chinchilla (Chinchilla lanigera Molina, 1782) behaviour - Dissertation 2012, Lublin

Summary:
The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between the types of chinchilla behaviour and different images of band patterns obtained using the RAPD-PCR technique. The sound-move test allowed classification of the animals into confident, reserved and indifferent ones. The results of the pilot study based on markers OPA07 and OPA12 suggest the existence of DNA regions containing nucleotide sequences that determine chinchilla behaviour. It is advisable that further analyses should be performed aimed at discovering sequences of genetic material that may determine the traits studied. This will facilitate using the band pattern as an additional criterion, beside lineage information, in animal selection

  • Socha, S et al (2000): Analysis of changeability of features in chinchillas (Chinchilla velligera M.). In: Electronic Journal of Polish Agricultural Universities, 32 - Link
  • Socha, S et al (2010): Analysis of Conformation Characters in Chinchillas of Standard and Polish Beige Strains in the Breeding Farm 'Raba' in Myślenice - Link
  • Socha, S et al: Comparative analysis of conformation traits of chinchilla (Chinchilla veligera Mol.) of certain colour types. In: Acta Scientiarum Polonorum Zootechnika 3(1): 77-88, 2004 - Link
  • Socha, S et al: The analysis of the factors that influence the fertility in three colour types of chinchilla. In: Lucrări ştiinţifice Zootehnie şi Biotehnologii, vol. 42 (2) (2009), Timişoara - Link
  • Tugova, NU: Morfometrichesky Indicators of Hair of Chinchillas of Different Colouring. In: SCIENTIFUR; 33, 3/4; 87

Abstract

Shinshillovodstvo in Russia exists about 40 years. Early studies on studying of biological features of standard chinchillas have been spent to 1968 in Kirovsk. For 40 years of serious researches on studying of chinchillas to Russia it was not spent. Now Shinshillovodstvo is at a new stage of development. There were many private enterprises in the south of our country, in a midland and in Moscow suburbs. New colourings of chinchillas which as breeds are confirmed abroad, such as B.Wilson, Eboni, Beige are received many. From references follows that studying of chinchillas of the given colourings in our country was not spent. In given article the data on morphological is presented indicators of hair of chinchillas of
different colourings.

Modern Problems and Methods of Ecological Physiology and Pathology of the Mammals
Introduced in Zooculture. Symposium at Institute of Biology of Karelian Research Centre Petrozavodsk State University, 23-25 September 2009, p. 265. Author’s abstract.

Quelle

  • Volcani, R et al (1973): The composition of chinchilla milk - In: British Journal of Nutrition, Volume 29, Issue 01, Januar 1973, pp 121-125 - Link
  • Wassow, J: Über das Haarkleid der Chinchilla (Chinchilla velligera ). Ein Beitrag zur Kenntnis des morphologishanatomischen Baues des Einzelhaares, Teil 1. In: Pelzgewerbe 20(4): 26-30, 1970 - Link

(*) Zitat aus: http://www.degupedia.de/board/viewtopic.php?f=17&t=1969:

Introduction
In first opinion small animal veterinary practice one is frequently presented with pet rabbits and rodents which have medical problems of possible dental origin. Unfortunately, for various reasons, many are not recognised as dental cases at an early enough, treatable, stage. Owners not infrequently fail to notice that small pets have a problem until death is imminent. Even when spotted earlier the problem may still have progressed beyond practical treatment. When signs of a problem are noticed early in the disease process, making a definitive diagnosis is often difficult, requiring costly investigation. As a result, investigation is often neglected. Both the owners' inability/ unwillingness to pay for treatment, and many veterinary surgeons' lack of enthusiasm and knowledge of the condition or species concerned, play their part. It is very easy when presented with a sick rabbit or rodent to prescribe a "standard" treatment regime and hope the patient will get better. Unfortunately this often just allows the condition to progress beyond the stage where correct treatment would have effected control or a cure.
The following discussion relates mainly to rabbits and the truly herbivorous pet rodents, guinea pigs and chinchillas, which have elodont premolars, molars and incisor teeth (The teeth continue growing throughout life).

Diagnosis of dental disease in rabbits and rodents.
To make an accurate diagnosis it helps to have sufficient data regarding the patient, its history and the signs observed. In most cases the history and an initial external examination of a sick animal will give indications as to any probable dental involvement.

Signs indicative of (probable) dental disease in rabbits and rodents:
In order of frequency of observation in the author's practice.

* significant
** very significant
*** extremely significant
**** specific dental problem

*** Weight loss
* Poor coat condition
** Digestive disturbance
*** Noticeable reduction in food intake
*** Dysphagia
*** Epiphora (**** chinchilla)
**** Visible incisor malocclusion/overgrowth
**** Palpable bony swelling of ventral mandible
*** Discomfort on palpation over cheek teeth
** Discomfort on manipulating jaw
*** Reduced range of movement of jaw
*** Inability to fully close jaw
** Conjunctivitis
*** Inappetance
**** Mandibular prognathism
*** Excessive salivation (slobbers)
*** Purulent ocular/nasal discharge
*** Facial abscessation
*** Mandibular abscessation
** Submandibular/cervical lymphadenopathy
*** Exopthalmos
* Systemic disease
** Emaciation
* Death

Oral examination
The long diastema between the incisor and cheek teeth of rabbits and rodents makes effective examination of the premolar and molar (cheek) teeth, along with their supporting soft tissues, difficult. Although it is possible to use an auriscope as an oral endoscope in some species, the restricted field of view means that many lesions will be missed. Even when examining a patient under anaesthesia using mouth gags, cheek dilators, mouth mirrors and magnification, it is common for experienced clinicians to miss significant oral lesions. In this regard, post mortem examinations are a very useful learning tool.

Common dental problems in rabbits and rodents
Unlike the situation in pet carnivores, periodontal disease is not frequently recognised in rabbits and rodents. This is probably mainly due to a lower incidence, but will also be due to a failure of many clinicians to detect or recognise signs of its presence.
The most frequently recognised dental problem in rabbits and rodents is malocclusion of their easily examined elodont (continually growing aradicular hypsodont) incisor teeth. Without the normal regular wear from chewing or gnawing activity, these non-functional maloccluded teeth continue growing, further impeding function.
The second most cmmon dental problem in the small herbivores is cheek tooth overgrowth. This often accompanies incisor malocclusion; either as a part of the primary condition, or as a purely secondary problem; but it is also seen as a primary problem in its own right. Cheek tooth overgrowth may result from lack of wear due to malocclusion or an insufficiently abrasive diet. It may also occur secondary to periodontal or metabolic (impaired collagen formation) disease. Whether or not the occlusion was normal to start with, a secondary malocclusion will develop as a result of tooth overgrowth. The exception to this last statement is when root extension occurs as a result of growth without matching eruption, as may sometimes be seen in chinchillas. In this case there may ocular signs, as described later, without any oral abnormality. In the author's experience, rabbits and guinea pigs do not develop root extension without visible oral signs of cheek tooth malocclusion or overgrowth.
Whether a malocclusion is primary or secondary, abnormal tooth wear of the naturally curved cheek teeth tends to cause development of sharp enamel spikes/spurs which irritate the cheeks and tongue leading to:

* pain
* dysphagia
* quidding
* salivation
* inappetance
* weight loss
* abscessation

It seems that root growth continues despite increased resistance to eruption following lack of adequate wear to the crown. Root extension frequently accompanies cheek tooth malocclusion. The extending maxillary root apices invade the lachrymal bone, obstructing the lachrymal duct and causing epiphora, and the orbit, leading to proptosis of the eye. The close proximity of the root apex of the rabbit's mesial cheek teeth to the lacrimal duct accounts for the occurrence of epiphora and the frequent spread of periodontal infection from these teeth to the tear duct, producing a typical purulent occular discharge.
Root extension of the mandibular cheek teeth leads to remodelling or thinning of the adjacent cortical bone with development of palpable swellings along the ventral surface of the mandible. Suspected mandibular or maxillary root extension is best confirmed radiographically.
Facial and mandibular abscesses quite common and are generally caused by dental problems, though infection of external wounds does also occur.
Dental abscesses may be due to:

* Periodontal infection
* Endodontic infection
* Orthodontic problems

In the latter case the abscess is usually due to a tooth penetrating the oral mucosa making localisation of the problem tooth easy.
Both periodontal and endodontic abscesses may appear away from the source of the problem. Endodontically affected teeth are best identified radiographically. Observation of periodontal food impaction or the location of periodontal pockets on careful probing may identify an offending tooth or teeth, but even so, radiography is still advisable.

Treatment options
As the vast majority of the orthodontic problems seen in practice seem to be hereditary, often with generation after generation showing the same problems, genetic counselling should be given to pet owners and breeders. Culling of affected breeding stock and their offspring is essential. Unfortunately by the time the problem becomes apparent, the affected animals have generally already produced several litters.
(How much genetic counselling do human patients get before orthodontic treatment is performed on them?) Depending on the situation the main treatment options in pets are:

* Benign neglect (not advised)
* Incisor tooth shortening
* Cheek tooth occlusal equilibration
* Extraction of affected teeth
* Euthanasia

Whilst benign neglect is a common practice, just maintaining observation for signs of pain or distress, this cannot be recommended. As already mentioned, any delay in investigation and treatment will allow further progression of the disease process reducing the chances of successful treatment.
The incisor tooth overgrowth problem has traditionally been managed by repeated tooth shortening (preferably trimming using a bur in a high speed dental handpiece), without investigation of the underlying problem. In cases with recurrent overgrowth, extraction of the offending teeth has been suggested as a more permanent solution. In early cases with a minor degree of rosro-caudal malocclusion, correction can occasionally be accomplished in rabbits (not rodents) by burring a reverse bevel on the mandibular incisors to create an incline plane like interlock with the maxillary first incisors. In the majority of cases, occlusal equilibration of the cheek teeth is also required.
Treatment of the cheek teeth by removing enamel spikes and occlusal equilibration is sometimes possible, though the long term results are poor in most cases. As with the correction of rabbit incisor malocclusion, the treatment is most successful if performed at an early stage, in mild cases. Dietary alteration (providing hay as the largest component of the diet) to increase the rate of attrition is highly beneficial in these cases. In more advanced cases the provision of a more abrasive diet is helpful, but it is usually necessary to repeat occlusal equilabration at regular intervals.
Whilst extraction of rabbits' incisors is useful in cases of malocclusion with recurrent overgrowth of these teeth, the long term results are disappointing in over 50% of cases due to the development of significant cheek tooth problems. Although it may not be visually obvious at the time of incisor extraction, most of the rabbits treated by the author have had radiographic changes suggestive of cheek tooth problems, even when everything appeared normal on oral examination. As would be expected, if there is concurrent cheek tooth disease (periodontal disease, malocclusion, overgrowth etc.), any improvement following treatment of just the incisor problem tends to be of short duration.
The treatment of dental abscesses in rabbits and rodents requires identification of the cause. If due to periodontal or endodontic disease, extraction of the affected teeth is necessary in addition to local treatment {drainage, curretage, application of a Ca(OH)2 dressing}. When the abscess is due to mucosal penetration of an enamel spike, removal of the spike, plus treatment of the underlying malocclusion will be effective.

Treatment policy
Due to the low value of most pet rabbits and rodents, the cost of investigation and treatment of dental disease is a significant factor to many owners. They want to know if it is worth having treatment. As a result, it is no longer the author's policy to immediately recommend treatment of dental problems in these animals, but rather to suggest a thorough examination and assessment under anaesthesia to see whether treatment is likely to be beneficial, and if so, whether recurrence should be expected. The biggest problem has been finding reliable prognostic indicators.
This approach has significantly increased the take up of dental services for these species from around 20% to 50% of cases. This still leaves half the affected animals. Of these, about half the owners opt for immediate euthanasia, whilst the other cases go onto a tooth shortening or benign neglect program.

Prognostic indicators
As mentioned previously, cheek tooth problems are an indication of a poor prognosis, but their presence or their full extent are often not identified on clinical examination. Radiology, whilst not being totally reliable, does seem to give a good indication of the extent and degree of cheek tooth problems. When the results of physical examination are combined with radiological assessment it is possible to formulate a more reliable prognosis.
Any severely debilitated patients are put onto a nursing care program prior to full assessment. Failure to respond to intensive care indicates a grave prognosis. In these cases where there is a very high anaesthetic risk, the choice is between euthanasia and an attempt at investigation and treatment. If such animals survive induction of anaesthesia treatment might be possible, so the attempt is worthwhile, though the majority die on induction, which is basically equivalent to performing euthanasia anyway.
If no serious problems are found during the definitive oral examination and the radiographs look OK, then treatment is usually worthwhile. Treated animals should be followed up. Re-examination and re-treatment should be arranged if signs fail to disappear, or if they recur at a later date.
If there are gross changes, abnormal root morphology, significant root extension, bone loss, osteomyelitis etc. then euthanasia is probably the most humane option.
Between the two extremes, the author treats those cases where the owner is keen to have a go and euthanases the others. Recurrence of signs in treated animals from this group is taken as an indication for euthanasia.

References

1. Brown, S.A. (1993). Incisor removal in the rabbit, TNAVC 1993 proceedings, pages 791-792.
2. Crossley, D.A. (1994). Extraction of rabbit incisor teeth, EVDS Forum 1993 no. 4
3. Harkness, J.E. and Wagner, J.E. (1989). The Biology and Medicine of Rabbits and Rodents, third edition, Published by Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia.
4. Kennedy, A.H. (1970). Chinchilla Diseases and Ailments, Published by Clay Publishing, Bewdley, Ontario.
5. Lobprise, H.B. and Wiggs, R.B. (1991). Dental and oral disease in lagomorphs, J.Vet.Dent, 1991:8(2)
6. Okerman, L. (1988). Diseases of Domestic Rabbits, published by Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford.
7. Richardson, V.C.G. (1992). Diseases of Domestic Giunea Pigs, Published by Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford.
8. Wiggs, R.B. and Lobprise, H.B. (1990). Dental disease in rodents, J.Vet.Dent, 1990:7(3)
9. Wiggs, R.B. and Lobprise, H.B. (1995). Dentistry in pet lagomorphs and rodents, in: BSAVA Manual of Small Animal Dentistry, second edition (Eds. D.A.Crossley & S. Penman). published by BSAVAQuelle: http://web.archive.org/web/20060907175425/http://periodont.spallek.com/peris9.html